swelling caused by excess fluid in the body.
electromyography (ee-LEK-troh-my-AH-gruh-fee) (EMG):
a test used to detect nerve function. It measures the electrical activity generated by muscles.
endocrine (EN-doh-krin) gland:
a group of specialized cells that release hormones into the blood. For example, the islets in the pancreas, which secrete insulin, are endocrine glands.
a doctor who treats people who have endocrine gland problems such as diabetes.
end-stage renal disease (ESRD):
see kidney failure.
protein made by the body that brings about a chemical reaction, for example, the enzymes produced by the gut to aid digestion.
a normal level of glucose in the blood.
one of several approaches for diabetes meal planning. Foods are categorized into three groups based on their nutritional content. Lists provide the serving sizes for carbohydrates, meat and meat alternatives, and fats. These lists allow for substitution for different groups to keep the nutritional content fixed.
fasting blood glucose test:
a check of a person’s blood glucose level after the person has not eaten for 8 to 12 hours (usually overnight). This test is used to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes. It is also used to monitor people with diabetes.
1. One of the three main nutrients in food. Foods that provide fat are butter, margarine, salad dressing, oil, nuts, meat, poultry, fish, and some dairy products. 2. Excess calories are stored as body fat, providing the body with a reserve supply of energy and other functions.
premixed insulin that is 50 percent intermediate-acting (NPH) insulin and 50 percent short-acting (regular) insulin.
fluorescein (fluh-RESS-ee-in) angiography (an-gee-AH-grah-fee):
a test to examine blood vessels in the eye; done by injecting dye into an arm vein and then taking photos as the dye goes through the eye’s blood vessels.
fructosamine (frook-TOH-sah-meen) test:
measures the number of blood glucose molecules (MAH-leh-kyools) linked to protein molecules in the blood. The test provides information on the average blood glucose level for the past 3 weeks.
a sugar that occurs naturally in fruits and honey. Fructose has 4 calories per gram.
the death of body tissue, most often caused by a lack of blood flow and infection. It can lead to amputation.
a form of neuropathy that affects the stomach. Digestion of food may be incomplete or delayed, resulting in nausea, vomiting, or bloating, making blood glucose control difficult.
gestational (jes-TAY-shun-ul) diabetes mellitus (MELL-ih-tus) (GDM):
a type of diabetes mellitus that develops only during pregnancy and usually disappears upon delivery, but increases the risk that the mother will develop diabetes later. GDM is managed with meal planning, activity, and, in some cases, insulin.
a condition of the gums characterized by inflammation and bleeding.
a group of cells that secrete substances. Endocrine glands secrete hormones. Exocrine glands secrete salt, enzymes, and water.
glargine (GLAR-jeen) insulin:
very-long-acting insulin. On average, glargine insulin starts to lower blood glucose levels within 1 hour after injection and keeps working evenly for 24 hours after injection.
an increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that may lead to loss of vision.
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Amaryl.)
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand names: Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL.)
glomerular (glo-MEHR-yoo-lur) filtration rate:
measure of the kidney’s ability to filter and remove waste products.
plural of glomerulus.
a tiny set of looping blood vessels in the kidney where the blood is filtered and waste products are removed.
a hormone produced by the alpha cells in the pancreas. It raises blood glucose. An injectable form of glucagon, available by prescription, may be used to treat severe hypoglycemia.
Glucophage, Glucophage XR:
one of the simplest forms of sugar.
chewable tablets made of pure glucose used for treating hypoglycemia.
glucose tolerance test:
see oral glucose tolerance test.
Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL:
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is a combination of glyburide and metformin.
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand names: DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase; ingredient in Glucovance.)
glycemic (gly-SEE-mik) index:
a ranking of carbohydrate-containing foods, based on the food’s effect on blood glucose compared with a standard reference food.
the form of glucose found in the liver and muscles.
the presence of glucose in the urine.
a unit of weight in the metric system. An ounce equals 28 grams. In some meal plans for people with diabetes, the suggested amounts of food are given in grams.